Proto-Urianian verbal system

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Nothing is attested of the Proto Urianian verbal system, but we can assume that the Old Urianian categories displaying traditional forms were in place, that is: active and middle voice; indicative, imperative and subjunctive mood; present and imperfect tense. The Old Urianian s-future is probably inherited, as it is similar to the forms in other languages, like Celtic. The Old Urianian innovations, the passive mood and the perfect and pluperfect tenses, were probably not present. In some Old Urianian verbs we do have traces of an earlier reduplicated perfect, which remains functional as a derivative mechanism, and the reduplicated perfect can thus be postulated with some degree of probability as a feature of Proto Urianian. Syncope of the root vowel is known from Old Urianian, but less frequent in the older texts, and we are assuming here that this feature was absent from Proto Urianian.

The following is a reconstructed paradigm of the thematic verb kōb-, ‘bend’, which shows a reduplicated perfect:

Active indicative present imperfect perfect future *kōbó *ékōbom *kékōb *kōbsóm *kōb'ē *ékōbes *kékōbet *kōbsés *kōb *ékōbet *kékōb *kōbsét *kubmón *ékubmes *kékubem *kubsomés *kubét *ékubet *kékub *kubseté *kubó *ékubont *kékubēr *kubsónt

Active subjunctive present imperfect future kubiém ékōbjem kubsiém kubiés ékōbjes kubsiés kubiét ékōbjet kubsiét kubimé ékōbim kubsimé kubité ékōbit kubsité kōbínt ékōbint kōbsínt

Middle indicative present imperfect future kōbá ékōb kōbsá kōbotá ékōbot kōbsotá kōbó ékōb kōbsó kōbomzá ékōbomz kōbsomzá kōbzú ékōbzu kōbsezú kōbró ékōbur kōbsoró

Middle subjunctive present imperfect future kubiá ékōbi kōbsiá kubitá ékōbit kōbsitá kubitó ékōbit kōbsitó kubiméz ékōbimz kōbsimz kubizué ékōbizu kōbsizué kōbiró ékōbir kōbsiró

Imperative kubéz kōbtód kōbtód kubént

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