Overview of the constitution
The formal head of the Urianian government is the president, who is elected in a popular ballot for a period of six years. The political power of the president however is limited, as all decisions made by the president has to be sanctioned by the parliament, although in times of war or other special crises, the parliament may vote to give the president the power to act on their behalf. The president must sign any law passed by the parliament, and may block a law by refusing this signature, but cannot refuse if the law is passed again after the next annual parliamentary election. The president's only resort then is to withdraw from office and have a new president elected, and this has happened a couple of times. In addition to this, the president has the duty and power to resolve a tie in a parliamentary vote, and the duty to appoint a new prime minister if the government should fail. The next presidential election in Uriania will take place in 2015.
The parliament, which resides in Borg, consists of 225 seats, 75 from each of the Byntian, Azurian and Urianian nations, the latter including 3 from the county of Ul-Muna. After the loss of Scollerin (see the section on Scollerinian politics here), the Urianian nation has been the smallest by far in numbers, and of the other two, the Azurian is markedly bigger. This has lead to discussions about changes in the distribution of seats, but so far, motions to this effect have been defeated in parliament, invariably supported by nearly all of the Azurian delegates, but opposed by most of the others. There are annual elections to the parliament, where the three nations elect their representatives in turn. The elections this year (2010) will take place in the Urianian nation. Next year, the Byntians will hold their elections, and the year after that the Azurians. The Ul-Munans elect their representatives along with the Urianians. Participation is limited to citizens who are 18 years old or more in the year of election, along with any foreigner at that age or older having resided in the country since before the last election in the region, and with anyone able to express themselves in all three of the official languages of Uriania and to answer correctly a few questions about Urianian history and culture, who sends in a formal application to me.
The various political parties win delegates from 19 electoral districts, roughly corresponding to the counties, 5 in Byntland, 7 in Azuria, and 6 in Uriania, and the number of delegates is calculated from the election results through a proportional system. Currently the electoral districts and their shares of the delegates are as follows:
Cantonshire (CS) 11
Thaddingshire (TS) 10
Wineland (WL) 17, including Wickford city
Highlands (HL) 8
Southend City (SC) 29
Rudjaland (RL) 20, including Lundeby city and Finstad town
Land (L) 13, including Lagefoss town
Kongelv (KE) 13
Slettland (SL) 4
Borgland (BL) 13, including Borg city
Olavsland (OL) 7
Northwestern Counties (NVF) 5, including the counties of Storbygd and Set
Urduk (U) 25
County of Firths (XF) 20, including the towns of Jurian and Xeria
Uria Region (UR) 11
Derekia (DE) 5
Ranzalar (RA) 6
Zirtu (Z) 5, including the counties of Zirtu and Nitzu
Ul-Muna (UM) 3
There are no regional assemblies, but the Byntian parliamentary delegates may meet in Southend, the Urianian ones in Urduk and the Azurian ones in Borg to decide local matters. Local democracy is executed by local councils or communes, 570 in number, elected every 3 years. Most councils follow the same 3-year rhythm, electing their representatives in the general communal election, the next one being scheduled to take place this year, but a sizeable number have deviated and have their local elections in different years. Today however, exceptions from the 3 year period are granted only in very special cases. Local independence is considerable otherwise. All local facilities and institutions are financed and run by the council. The state only is responsible for the facilities providing service for more than one commune, such as high roads, higher schools, hospitals etc. There is a department of state concerned with coordinating the local government, executing parliamentary decisions bearing on the local communities, resolving conflicts, distributing money from the central equalising fund to the poorer councils, etc.
The central government is headed by the prime minister, who selects the other members of the cabinet. Any new government has to be sanctioned by the parliament, whose members, along with the president, also have the right to fell the government in a motion of no-confidence. If such a motion succeeds, or the government resigns for another reason, the president will ask a new prime minister candidate to try to form a new government. It is customary for this candidate to be suggested by the former prime minister, but on a small number of occasions, the new prime minister to be has been the president’s own choice. A government also may ask the parliament for a vote of confidence if a parliamentary election has undermined its basis of power or if it requires support in a crucial question. The only way to fell a government that does not want to resign of its own accord, is through a decision in parliament, and minority governments often sail through various elections upon waves of compromise, leaning alternately on this and that side for support.
All these elections guarantee a high degree of popular involvement in political decision making. But any citizen able to gather 500 signatures for a cause may also demand a communal referendum, citizens able to gather 10,000 signatures may demand referendums in the regions of their residence, and citizens able to raise 100,000 signatures may demand a national referendum. Referendums are organised by the local councils if communal, or by the Department of Local Government if regional or national. Local councils have the right to adjust the local signature limit in accordance with their populations, subject to approval by the DLG.
The citizens of Uriania have a lot of political parties to choose from:
- Catholic Christian Democrats (CCD) / Katolske Demokrater (KD) / Dimun Demokratig Katolig (DDK)
Formed in 1952 to protect the rights of Catholics. Active only in the Byntian region for many years, but has participated in the other elections since the late 80s.
- Christian Democrats (CD) / Kristelig Folkeparti (KF) / Dimun Temja Naryam (DTN)
Formed in 1951 to defend Christian values against the corruption of society. Participates in all parliamentary elections.
- The Claret Party (CLP) / Rødvinspartiet (RVP) / Dimun Razin (DRI)
Formed 1984 to promote the imbibing of good clarets for health and enjoyment. Participates in all parliamentary regions.
- Comics, Cartoons and Animation Equality Party (CCEAP) / Partiet Likerett for Tegneserier, Vitsetegninger og Animasjon (PLTVA) / Dimun Samnid Triprybant, Tripnant Langi je Animaconai (DSTTLA)
Established in 1989 to give cartoons and comics their rightful place in the cultural sphere. Later extended to include animations as well. Participates in all regions.
- The Conservative Party (CP) / Det Konservative Parti (DKP) / Dimun Afan (DA)
Formerly a local branch of the Conservatives in Britain, reformed as a Urianian party in 1935. The party collaborates with the DKF and normally participates only in the Byntic parliamentary elections, but in 1973 and some years afterwards they made exceptions due to disagreement with the DKF over the EEC question.
- The Conservative Popular Party (CPP) / Det Konservative Folkeparti (DKF) / Dimun Afan Temja (DAT)
Local branch of the Danish conservatives, reformed as a Urianian party in 1950. Participates normally only in the Azurian and Urianian parliamentary elections, but entered the Byntic ones in 1972 due to the above-mentioned disagreement.
- Dafist Party (DP) / Tivianerpartiet (TP) / Dimun Tivat Temja (DTT)
Formed 1950 to defend the values of the traditional Urianian Pagans against the corruption of society. Has participated in all the parliamentary regions since 1973.
- Danish Unionist Party (DUP) / Unionspartiet (UP) / Dimun Izran Tenat (DIT)
Established 1907 to work for the continued union with Denmark inside the new parliamentary system. Very active and influential in the years leading up to 1934, but played a marginal role afterwards, with a brief spell of popularity around the time of the EEC referendum in 1973. However, the party celebrated its centenary in 2007 after having won a seat in the 2006 election for the first time in many years.
- English Unionist Party (EUP) / Det Britiske Unionspartiet (BUP) / Dimun Izran Inkleg (DII)
Established 1903 to work against Panurianism. Active only in the Byntian parliamentary region, but unlike its Danish counterpart it still regularly clinches a handful of seats in the parliament, and it played a very active role during the 1973 EEC referendum.
- League of Fantasy and Imagination (LFI) / Fantasiligaen (FL) / Liga Fantasi (LF)
Established 1979 to promote the idea that most of the problems of the world arise from the lack of fantasy and imagination in decision makers. Active in all regions.
- Floral Party (FLP) / Blomsterpartiet (BP) / Dimun Flas (DF)
Established 1987 to promote floral gifts in order to brighten up daily life. Active in all parliamentary regions.
- Freedom Party (FP) / Frihetspartiet (FP) / Dimun Ilmined (DIN)
Organised as a political organisation in 1855 to work for the independence of Azuria within the Azurian national assembly. Instrumental in the struggle for independence culminating in 1934, but later its role has diminished. Formerly exclusive for Azuria, but reorganised in the 1970s and from 1977 has participated in all three parliamentary elections with a programme of non-militant anarchism.
- Green Party (GP) / Partiet De Grønne (PDG) / Dimun Ran (DR)
Formed 1976 as a political organisation to protect the environment. Later also with strong cultural affiliations. Participates in all regions.
- Health and Welfare Party (HWP) / Sunnhetspartiet (SP) / Dimun Zynnid (DZ)
Formed 1972 to promote a healthy lifestyle and proper national health care. Active in all regions.
- Labour Party (L) / Sosialdemokratiet (SD) / Dimun Abminan Urianja (DAU)
Result of two mergers, first between the local branches of the Danish and the British social democrats 1935. The DAU was formed independently in 1873 and merged with the others in 1937. Participates in all parliamentary elections.
- The Liberal Party (LP) / Venstre (V) / Dimun Ilmin (DI)
Merger of the British Liberals and the Danish Venstre reformed as a Urianian party in 1934. Participates in all parliamentary elections.
- Marxist-Leninist Party (MLP) / Marxist-leninistpartiet (MLP) / Dimun Marxist-Leninist (DML)
Formed in 1932 as a breakaway faction from the now defunct Azurias Kommunistiske Parti (AKP). Participates only in Azurian parliamentary elections.
- Metal Party (MEP) / Metal-partiet (MEP) / Dimun Metal (DME)
Formed in 1998 as a breakaway faction from the MP to promote a more metallic lifestyle. Active in all regions.
- Music Party (MP) / Musikkpartiet (MP) / Dimun Musigja (DM)
Formed 1986 to promote the musical aspect of life. Has since embraced art and writing as well. Participates in all elections.
- Muslim Brotherhood (MB) / Det Muslimske Brorskap (MB) / Frednid muslimig (FM)
Formed in 2001 to defend Muslim values against the corruption of society. Active in all regions.
- National Progress Party (NPP) / Nasjonalt Framskrittsparti (NFP) / Dimun Barild Naconal (DBN)
Formed 1952 as the Anti-Socialist Party (ASP). Changed its name in 1993 after having adopted a policy against taxes, immigration and elite culture and tries to emulate the successes of its Danish and Norwegian counterparts. Participates in all regions.
- Natural Law Party (NLP) / Naturrettspartiet (NRP) / Dimun Rik Naturi (DRN)
Established 1955 to promote natural law philosophies. Active in all regions.
- Non-Revolutionary Workers' Party (NRWP) / Ikke-Revolusjonære Arbeiderparti (IRAP) / Dimun Abminan En-Tibnidig (DAET)
Formed 1972 as an offshoot of the ASP and has developed militant right-wing leanings with anti-immigration policies. Participates in all regions. Notorious for avert racist statements by minor party figures and attempts to outlaw the party has been made.
- The Official Monster Raving Loony Party of Uriania (OMRLPU) / Det Offisielle Uhyre Ravende Gale Partiet i Uriania (OURGPU) / Dimun Offisial Monster Triman Mnadig Urianja (DOMTMU)
Established 1990 as a Byntian branch of the British party with a similar name. Has participated only in the Byntian parliamentary elections so far.
- Orange Party (OP) / Det Oransje Partiet (OP) / Dimun Oranc (DO)
Formed 1918 to protect the rights of Presbyteran protestants. Active in the Byntian region.
- Our Party (O) / Vårt Parti (VP) / Dimun San (DS)
Formed in Lundeby 1968 by a local comedian as an anti-political statement. Has since taken up several protest causes, especially those abandoned by the left, and is regarded as a more intellectual alternative to the NPP, without the antielitism and anti-immigration policies of the latter. Participates in all regions.
- The People's Democratic Party (PDP) / Folkedemokratene (FD) / Dimun Temja Demokratig (DTD)
Established 1984 and working for a more direct involvement from the people in political decision making. Has gained some popularity following a series of diligent campaigns for the rights of consumers and the common people, with a certain populist tendency. On the other hand, the party has taken special initiatives in international solidarity issues. Participates in all regions.
- The Pessimist Party (PP) / Pessimistpartiet (PP) / Dimun pessimistan (DP)
Formed in 1979 to give all pessimists a political voice. Participates hopefully in all parliamentary elections but so far with no success.
- The Politically Correct Party (PCP) / Det Politisk Korrekte Parti (PKP) / Dimun Rikt Poltikali (DRP)
Formed in 2002 as a protest against the use of the term “politically correct” to abuse established egalitarian rights in the new millennium. Active in all regions.
- Post-Modernist Party (PMP) / Postmodernistpartiet (PMP) / Dimun Postmodernist (DPM)
Established 1994 to promote postmodern ideologies and strategies in the political life. Participates in all regions.
- The Radical Liberals (RL) / Radikale Venstre (RV) / Dimun Ilmin Radikal (DIR)
Azurian branch of the Danish Radikale Venstre reformed as a Urianian party in 1934. Lead the successful campaign to join the EEC in 1973 and still has strong internationalist leanings. Participates in all parliamentary elections.
- Rainbow Party (RBP) / Regnbuepartiet (RP) / Dimun Urvir (DU)
Formed 1978 to oppose anti-immigration policies. Active in all regions.
- Red Block (RB) / Røde Blokk (RB) / Blok Zen (BZ)
Established 1963 by dissidents from the RWP concerned about Moscow imperialism, amalgamating with two smaller left-wing parties. Active in all regions.
- Revolutionary Workers’ Party (RWP) / Revolusjonære Arbeiderparti (RAP) / Dimun Abminan Tibnidig (DAT)
Formed 1949 by dissidents from the three other Marxist parties when they decided to embrace parliamentarism. Active in all regions.
- The Rural Party (RP) / Landsbygdpartiet (LP) / Dimun Tingtan (DT)
Formed in 1957 to protect the rights of the countryside population. Participates in all parliamentary elections.
- Scientific Positivist Party (SPP) / Det Vitenskapelige Positivistpartiet (VPP) / Dimun Vitnid Positivist (DVP)
Established 1965 as the Progress-Democratic Party (PDP). Renamed in 1995 to avoid association with the NPP. Participates in all parliamentary regions.
- Senior's and Single's Party (SSP) / Eldres og Ensliges Parti (EEP) / Dimun Kirgan je Saman (DKS)
Formed in 1989 to protect the rights of seniors and singles. Active in all regions.
- Sisters and Brothers of Peace and Spirituality (SBPS) / Brorskapet Fred og Ånd (BFÅ) / Frednid Brudja je Enjigi (FBE)
Established 1970 and enjoyed a brief surge of popularity, but has faded in later years. Participates still in all parliamentary regions.
- Sisters of Athena (SA) / Athenesøstrene (AS) / Urgi-zyret (UZ)
Formed 1975 as a political organisation protecting women's rights. Active in all regions.
- Small Farmer's Party (SFP) / Småbrukerpartiet (SBP) / Dimun Feferminan (DFF)
Established 1982 to ease the burdens of small farms and reduce the closing down rate. Active at first only in the Urianian region, then Byntland in 1987 and Azuria 1991.
- Ul-Muna Movement (UMM) / Ul-Muna-bevegelsen (UMB) / Tegran Ul-Muna (TUM)
Political organisation formed in 1971 to protect the traditional values of the Muna from the corruption of the outside world. Participated at first only in the Munan constituency, but soon spread to others with Munan residents, and since the mid-70s has tried to win a more general appeal, participating in all the regional parliamentary elections.
- Urianian Communist Party (UCP) / Det Urianske Kommunistpartiet (UKP) / Dimun Kommunist Urianja (DKU)
Formed in 1919 and active today only in Urianian parliamentary elections.
- Urianian Nationalist Party (UNP) / Nationalistpartiet (NP) / Dimun Naconal (DN)
Formed as a political organisation in 1853 after the failure of the 1849 rebellion to work for the independence of the Urianian counties within the Azurian national assembly. Instrumental in the struggle for independence culminating in 1934. Formed the first republican government with the Azurian Freedom Party (FP) and the Byntian Panurianist Party (PUP). Remains a strong political force to this day. Participated only in the Urianian regional parliamentary elections until 1964, when it entered the Azurian election for the first time, followed by its first participation in the Byntian election in 1969.
- Urianian Social-Revolutionary Worker's Party (USRWP) / Det Urianske Sosialrevolusjonære Arbeiderparti (USRAP) / Dimun Abminan Tibnid Sosial Urianja (DATSU)
Formed in 1936 as one of several breakaways from the now defunct Communist Party of Byntland (CPB). Instrumental in the 1948 revolution. Has been active in all three parliamentary regions, but nowadays participates only in Byntland in agreement with its two sister-parties.
- Yellow Party (YP) / Det Gule Parti (G) / Dimun Ilf (I)
Established 1978 and has an ill-defined political agenda, except that it is decidedly antimilitaristic. Participates in all regions, but with little success.
From the 15th century, Byntian clergy, nobles, shires and burghs sent commissioners to the Scottish Parliament whenever it was called. While the clergy were represented by those of the higher ranks, and each of the noble families could send one representative, the commissioners from the shires and burghs had to be elected in some manner or other. However, the results are not recorded here.
From 1708, Byntian constituencies sent delegates to the Parliament of Great Britain as follows:
General election of 1708
General election of 1710
General election of 1713
General election of 1715
General election of 1722
General election of 1727
General election of 1734
General election of 1741
General election of 1747
General election of 1754
General election of 1761
General election of 1768
General election of 1774
General election of 1780
General election of 1784
General election of 1790
General election of 1796
From 1802, Byntian constituencies sent delegates to the Parliament of the United Kingdom as follows:
General election of 1802
General election of 1806
General election of 1807
General election of 1812
General election of 1818
General election of 1820
General election of 1826
General election of 1830
General election of 1831
General election of 1832
General election of 1835
General election of 1837
General election of 1841
General election of 1847
General election of 1852
General election of 1857
General election of 1859
General election of 1865
General election of 1868
General election of 1874
General election of 1880
General election of 1885
General election of 1886
General election of 1892
General election of 1895
General election of 1900
General election of 1906
General election of 1910 (January)
General election of 1910 (December)
The Parliament of Byntland was erected in 1903, and held general elections as follows:
General election of 1903
General election of 1909
General election of 1911
General election of 1914
General election of 1917
General election of 1923
General election of 1928
General election of 1931
From 1853, Azurian and Urianian constituencies elected representatives to a self-government body called the National Council, as follows:
National Council election of 1853
National Council election of 1859
National Council election of 1862
National Council election of 1867
National Council election of 1871
The National Council was abolished in 1875, but 10 years later it was replaced by the Grand Assembly, elected as follows:
Grand Assembly election 1885
Grand Assembly election 1889
Grand Assembly election 1893
Grand Assembly election 1897
Grand Assembly election 1901
Grand Assembly election 1905
Grand Assembly election 1909
Grand Assembly election 1913
Grand Assembly election 1917
Grand Assembly election 1921
Grand Assembly election 1925
Grand Assembly election 1929
Grand Assembly election 1933
Results from the independence referendums in Byntland and Azuria/Uriania 1934.
The Urianian Parliament was erected in 1934, and held general elections as follows:
General election of 1934
General election of 1940
General election of 1946
General election of 1949
From 1950, the tripartite system has been in use:
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1950
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1951
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1952
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1953
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1954
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1955
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1956
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1957
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1958
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1959
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1960
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1961
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1962
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1963
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1964
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1965
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1966
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1967
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1968
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1969
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1970
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1971
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1972
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1973
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1974
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1975
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1976
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1977
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1978
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1979
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1980
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1981
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1982
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1983
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1984
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1985
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1986
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1987
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1988
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1989
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1990
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1991
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1992
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1993
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1994
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1995
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1996
Parliamentary election of Azuria 1997
Parliamentary election of Uriania 1998
Parliamentary election of Byntland 1999
Parliamentary election of Azuria 2000
Parliamentary election of Uriania 2001
Parliamentary election of Byntland 2002
Parliamentary election of Azuria 2003
Parliamentary election of Uriania 2004
Parliamentary election of Byntland 2005
Parliamentary election of Azuria 2006
Parliamentary election of Uriania 2007
Parliamentary election of Byntland 2008
Parliamentary election of Azuria 2009
Parliamentary election of Uriania 2010
The first Urianian presidents were elected by the Parliament:
Presidential election 1934
Presidential election 1940
Presidential election 1946
Since 1949, the presidents have been popularly elected:
Presidential election of 1949
Presidential election of 1951
Presidential election of 1955
Presidential election of 1961
Presidential election of 1967
Presidential election of 1973
Presidential election of 1976
Presidential election of 1979
Presidential election of 1985
Presidential election of 1991
Presidential election of 1997
Presidential election of 2003
Presidential election of 2009